Blinking snake

Vietnamese Pronunciation:  Tones, Vowels and Consonants

Tones

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) has six tones, although only five are used in the South.

Tiếng Việt Marker Example English Meaning
Level tone Ngang (không) du (unmarked) ma Ghost
Rising tone Sắc du  ́́ Mother
Falling tone Huyền du  ̀̀ Which
Falling rising tone Hỏi du  ̉̉̉ mả Tomb
High rising tone Ngã du  ̃ Horse
Low constricted tone Nặng du  ̣ mạ Rice Seedling

Vowels

Vietnamese has twelve vowels; the six tone markers turn those twelve into 72 distinct vowels.

Unicode
Glyph

Alt+code (if any)
0061  0041
a A
Ah as in father
0103  0102
ă Ă
Eh as in am
00E2  00C2
â Â
Uh as in sofa

Alt+226
Alt+194
0065  0045
e E
Eh as in letter
00EA  00CA
ê Ê
Ey as in prey
Alt+234
Alt+202
0069  0049
i I
Ee as in bee
006F  004F
o O
Aw as in saw
00F4  00D4
ô Ô
Oh as in go
Alt+244
Alt+212
01A1  01A0
ơ Ơ
Uh as in mug
0075  0055
u U
Oo as in boot
01B0  01AF
ư Ư
Ue as in hurry
0079  0059
y Y
Ee as in bee
 ́  00E1  00C1
á Á
Alt+225
Alt+193
1EAF  1EAE
ắ Ắ
1EA5  1EA4
ấ Ấ
00E9  00C9
é É
Alt+233
Alt+201
1EBF  1EBE
ế Ế
00ED  00CD
í Í
Alt+237
Alt+205
00F3  00D3
ó Ó
Alt+243
Alt+211
1ED1  1ED0
ố Ố
1EDB  1EDA
ớ Ớ
00FA  00DA
ú Ú
Alt+250
Alt+218
1EE9  1EE8
ứ Ứ
00FD  00DD
ý Ý
Alt+253
Alt+221
 ̀̀  00E0  00C0
à À
Alt+224
Alt+192
1EB1  1EB0
ằ Ằ
1EA7  1EA6
ầ Ầ
00E8  00C8
è È
Alt+232
Alt+200
1EC1  1EC0
ề Ề
00EC  00CC
ì Ì
Alt+236
Alt+204
00F3  00D3
ò Ò
Alt+242
Alt+210
1ED3  1ED2
ồ Ồ
1EDD  1EDC
ờ Ờ
00F9  00D9
ù Ù
Alt+249
Alt+217
1EEB  1EEA
ừ Ừ
1EF3  1EF2
ỳ Ỳ
 ̉  1EA3  1EA2
ả Ả
1EB3  1EB2
ẳ Ẳ
1EA9  1EA8
ẩ Ẩ
1EBB  1EBA
ẻ Ẻ
1EC3  1EC2
ể Ể
1EC9  1EC8
ỉ Ỉ
1ECF  1ECE
ỏ Ỏ
1ED5  1ED4
ổ Ổ
1EDF  1EDE
ở Ở
1EE7  1EE6
ủ Ủ
1EED  1EEC
ử Ử
1EF7  1EF6
ỷ Ỷ
  ̃  00E3  00C3
ã Ã
Alt+227
Alt+195
1EB5  1EB4
ẵ Ẵ
1EAB  1EAA
ẫ Ẫ
1EBD  1EBC
ẽ Ẽ
1EC5  1EC4
ễ Ễ
0129  0128
ĩ Ĩ
00F5  00D5
õ Õ
Alt+245
Alt+213
1ED7  1ED6
ỗ Ỗ
1EE1  1EE0
ỡ Ỡ
0169  0168
ũ Ũ
1EEF  1EEE
ữ Ữ
1EF9  1EF8
ỹ Ỹ
  ̣  1EA1  1EA0
ạ Ạ
1EB7  1EB6
ặ Ặ
1EAD  1EAC
ậ Ậ
1EB9  1EB8
ẹ Ẹ
1EC7  1EC6
ệ Ệ
1ECB  1ECA
ị Ị
1ECD  1ECC
ọ Ọ
1ED9  1ED8
ộ Ộ
1EE3  1EE2
ợ Ợ
1EE5  1EE4
ụ Ụ 
1EF1  1EF0
ự Ự
1EF5  1EF4
ỵ Ỵ

Consonants

Vietnamese has 26 initial consonants and 8 final consonants; ch counts as a separate consonant, and sorts as such (like Spanish).  Some (noted below) are implosive at the beginning of words, some are plosive at the end.  Initial nh is palatalized (as is the Spanish enya, ñ).  th is partially palatalized, as the tongue is laid flat against the palate but the y part is left off.  Final t is glottalized (t’), and the breath is never released after final consonants.

Initial Consonants
Unicode
Glyph
0062  0042
b B
B as in bad
(Implosive before some vowels)
0063  0043
c C
K as in kill
(Used only before i, e, ê and y)
(0063+0068) (0043+0068)
ch Ch
Ch as in chop
0064  0044
d D
Z as in zoo (North)
Y as in you (South)
0111  0110
đ Đ
D as in dog
(Implosive before some vowels)
0067  0047
g G
G as in go
(0067+0068)  (0047+0068)
gh Gh
G as in go
(Used only before i, e, ê and y)
(0067+0069)  (0047+0069)
gi Gi
Z as in zoo
0068  0048
h H
H as in hat
006B  004B
k K
K as in kill
(006B+0068)  (004B+0068)
kh Kh
Ch as in ach (high German) or
Loch (Scottish), but often turned into ‘k’ in everyday speech.
006C  004C
l L
L as in life
006D  004D
m M
M as in man
Unicode
Glyph
006E  004E
n N
N as in not
(006E+0067)  (004E+0067)
ng Ng
Ng as in singer
(006E+0067+0068)  (004E+0067+0068)
ngh Ngh
Ng as in singer
(Used only before i, e and ê)
(006E+0068)  (004E+0068)
nh Nh
Ny as in canyon (Spanish ñ)
(0070+0068)  (0050+0068)
ph Ph
Ph as in phone
0071  0051
q Q
Qu as in queen
0072  0052
r R
Z as in zoo
0073  0053
s S
S as in sun
0074  0054
t T
T as in stop
(0074+0068)  (0054+0068)
th Th
T as in tot
(0074+0072)  (0054+0072)
tr Tr
Ch as in chop
0076  0056
v V
V as in van
0078  0058
x X
S as in sun
(sometimes Sh as in shine)
Final Consonants
Unicode
Glyph
0063
c
K as in stack
0063+0068
ch
Ch as in butch
006D
m
M as in spam
006E
n
N as in can
006E+0067
ng
Ng as in spring
006E+0068
nh
Ng as in spring
0070
p
P as in stop
Plosive; as in bắp cải
0074
t
T as in tot

New!  Vietnamese Dictionary



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See also “Computerization of National and Ethnic Scripts:  Country Report—Vietnam,” found at:  http://www.cicc.or.jp/english/hyoujyunka/mlit4/7-15vietnam/8-15.html.

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