Whiteness Theory and Education

University of Utah
Ed. St. 6950-002
Spring 2000
Office: 118B MBH
Audrey Thompson
mailbox in 307 MBH
Office Hours:  
off. 581-7158, h. 355-3537
Tu 3:00-4:30 & Th 2:00-3:30
meets Tu 4:30-7:30 p.m.
e-mail:
and by appt.
in OSH 138
http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html

Overview

Whiteness theory is intended to make white cultural assumptions and privileges visible so that whites do not assume that their own position is neutral and generic. It is consistent with the aims of multicultural theory but it is also distinct from multiculturalism. Multicultural theory involves fostering an appreciation of cultures other than the dominant culture; in its more radical forms, multiculturalism also involves problematizing the assumptions of the dominant culture. Because multicultural approaches are concerned with displacing white culture from its position of dominance, they usually do not focus on white culture as a distinctive culture or identity. Whiteness theory, on the other hand, focuses specifically on whiteness as a cultural identity — an identity that, to a considerable extent, is gained at the expense of people of color.

Whiteness theory is particularly important for educators, since white cultural norms are systematically enforced (usually without any recognition that they are white norms) in the schools. A teacher who can deconstruct his or her own whiteness is far better positioned to see why prevailing pedagogical and curricular patterns might not work for students. Even white teachers who are fully committed to multiculturalism often fail to see how their own investments in white culture as a universal culture get in the way of their good intentions vis-a-vis students of color.

Among the topics with which the course will be concerned will be the various strains in whiteness theory (which include material, discursive, and psychological theories), whiteness as a theoretical framework for conducting research, whiteness in relation to teacher identity, whiteness in relation to textuality and the curriculum, and the politics of different approaches to whiteness education (such as the “allies” approach).

Structure

The class will meet once a week, each time discussing the readings on the syllabus. To participate actively in class, it is essential that you read carefully, prepare questions, and jot down any issues you wish to discuss. I will make short presentations to provide necessary background information. My primary role, however, will be to ask questions, clarify points raised in our discussions, and summarize the important issues that we discuss.

Texts

The readings packet can be purchased from Empire Publishing Services at 211 E 300 S. In addition, there are two required books for the course. The following books are available for purchase at The King’s English (15th & 15th) and will be on reserve at the Marriott Library.

Required Books:

Alice McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).
David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1999). Revised version of David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991).

Optional/Recommended Books:

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).
Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).
Sherene H. Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

Course Requirements

In addition to the assigned reading, regular attendance, and participation, course requirements include several journal entries (2-4 pages each), one short paper (5 pages), and one book review (8-10 pages). (There is no final exam.) Writing the book review requires that you read one of the books listed in the attached bibliography (not including books already assigned for the course) — for example, Morrison’s Playing in the Dark, Paley’s White Teacher, or Razack’s Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms. You need to get approval for the book you choose before proceeding. (Other books that are not on the bibliography may also be an option.) The book review should draw on the ideas and texts discussed in the course, as well as discussing the particular book at issue. Both papers should be typed and double-spaced. All written work should not only demonstrate an understanding of class discussion and of the specific texts used in the course, but should also bring to bear students’ own perspectives and insights.

Participation and attendance: 15% of grade Journals: 20% of grade

Short Paper: 25% of grade Final paper: 40% of grade

Clarifications, Cautions, and Ground Rules

Whiteness theory does not address whiteness as a question of racial guilt or innocence based on skin color but as a system of privileges that is maintained discursively and materially (as well as in other ways). For many white teachers, whiteness as privilege is a new idea and it is difficult to avoid being defensive. It is important for those who are new to the idea to monitor their defensiveness about whiteness; on the other hand, those of us already more or less comfortable with talk about race privilege need to remember how long it took us to come to our present understanding (and how problematic our current understanding is likely to be). We also need to remember that no one in academia, regardless of color, escapes whiteness altogether: many of the values and privileges of whiteness are built into academic discourse, and if you have made it this far, you are participating in some of the privileges of whiteness.

Whiteness has an enormous organizing effect on other forms of power and privilege; accordingly, we will be talking about how race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, and other positionalities interlock to create, maintain, and support white privilege. We will not be talking about race or racial privilege in absolute terms. In other words, we will not be ranking the various kinds of privilege and oppression but will be talking about privilege in context. (If you are homeless, for example, it is not much consolation if you are a member of the elite category of straight white males.) For white teachers, it is important to see when and how white privilege matters and what they can do about it. This course will ask you to look at exactly how whiteness affects various relations and situations.

I will be asking everyone in the class to think like educators: if you feel that you have a better understanding of particular materials than do other students, ask yourself what you have had to learn to get to this point, and see if you can make that understanding available to others (without lecturing them). If you feel threatened by particular people in the class, think about how to address them so as to get past the impasse: how can you teach them how you would like to learn from them? Thinking as educators means attending to the conditions of learning as well as to whether everyone is learning. This doesn’t mean that no one can ever get angry or that everyone should always be “nice,” but it does mean that you have to show respect for others. “Difficult” behavior — and indeed “nice” behavior, as well — becomes an issue when 1) not everyone has the chance to speak; 2) not everyone is listened to; 3) someone is abusive, patronizing, or disrespectful; 4) opposing stances are not acknowledged and addressed when people have questions about them; and/or 5) people expect other people to understand their position when they have not explained their position.

Regardless of your situation, it is likely that you will at times find yourself uncomfortable with the arguments and analyses you encounter in a course such as this, and in some cases you may also find the theories intimidating. Not only are such experiences unavoidable but they are desirable insofar as they are part of unsettling what we think we know about ourselves and others. It takes time and study to move beyond discomfort. While the course will not attempt to eliminate discomfort over the course materials, it will try to make your discomfort interesting.

Schedule of Class Topics and Reading

Tu. 11 Jan. Introduction: Whiteness and White Privilege

Reading:

McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”
Deconstructing whiteness in film: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?

Tu. 18 Jan. What is Whiteness?

Readings:

Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism”
hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?”
Thompson, essay review found at http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm

Optional:

Dyer, “White”
Gallagher, “White Reconstruction in the University”

Journal assignment: How does racism affect you? (Choose one day to pay attention to this question all day long. If you teach, focus on one of your teaching days.) Read Berry before beginning this assignment. (2-4 pages)

Deconstructing ethnocentrism and whiteness in film: television ads and clips from PBS’s The Civil War, Gone with the Wind, and/or Driving Miss Daisy

Tu. 25 Jan. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, I

Readings:

Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia”
Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness, Parts I & II

Optional:

Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism
Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History”

Journal assignment: Response to Hamilton and Roediger: How has whiteness helped to rationalize racial inequality? (2-3 pages)
 

Tu. 1 Feb. Whiteness in Historical Perspective, II

Readings:

Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness, Parts III & IV
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness”

Journal assignment: Response to the readings. (Focus on whichever aspect of the readings most interests you, rather than trying to be thorough.) (2-3 pages)
 

Tu. 8 Feb. Materialist Whiteness Theorizing

Readings:

Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies”
Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz]”
Taylor, “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz]”
Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz]”
Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response]”

Optional:

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s
Harris, “Whiteness as Property”

Tu. 15 Feb. Discursive Whiteness Theorizing

Readings:

Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege”
Weis, Proweller, and Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege Inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s”
Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’”

Optional:

Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination
Thompson, “Colortalk: Whiteness and Off White

Deconstructing whiteness in film: Tarzan and/or The Jungle Book

Journal assignment: What roles do you see material whiteness playing in the educational context you are interested in studying? What roles do you see discursive whiteness playing in the educational context you are interested in studying? (3-4 pages)

Handout: Short paper topics.
 

Tu. 22 Feb. Substitute Day; Class does not meet.

[Meet with Monday classes instead]
 

Tu. 29 Feb. Psychological Views of Whiteness

Readings:

Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart”
Helms, “Toward a Model of White Racial Identity Development”

Optional:

Katz, White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-Racism Training
Rose, “White Identity and Counseling White Allies about Racism”

Short paper due. (Topic choices to be handed out in advance.)
 

Tu. 7 March Challenging/Changing Whiteness, I

Readings:

Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It”
Yúdice, “Neither Impugning nor Disavowing Whiteness Does a Viable Politics Make: The Limits of Identity Politics”

Optional:

Race Traitor http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/ [Web version of journal]
 

Tu. 14 March Spring Break
 

Tu. 21 March Challenging/Changing Whiteness, II

Readings:

Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?”
Frye, “White Woman Feminist”
Davion, “Reflections on the Meaning of White [Response to Frye]”

Optional:

Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms

Journal assignment: Response to one or more of the articles on challenging/changing whiteness. (3-4 pages)
 

Tu. 28 March Teachers, Whiteness, and Race

Reading:

Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited”
Kailin, “How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in ‘Liberal’ Lakeview”
Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race”

Optional:

Mohanty, “Drawing the Color Line: Kipling and the Culture of Colonial Rule”

In-class project: Bring to class an illustrated children’s book that includes children of different races or ethnicities but that has a white child as its protagonist. The book doesn’t necessarily have to have race as its topic. (The city libraries have good children’s book selections and the librarians should be able to help you find something.) We will be deconstructing whiteness in children’s books during part of class, working in groups of two or three.

Deconstructing whiteness in children’s movies: Cinderella and To Kill a Mockingbird
 

Tu. 4 April Preparing Teachers

Readings:

Lawrence and Tatum, “White Teachers as Allies: Moving from Awareness to Action”
McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers, 1-78.

Optional:

King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers”
Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy”

Journal assignment: What do you see as the pros and cons of various ways of engaging teachers in whiteness studies? (3 pages)
 

Tu. 11 April White Identity and Teacher Identity

Readings:

Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters, 191-235.
McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers, 79-150.

Optional:

Paley, White Teacher
Maher and Tetreault, “Learning in the Dark: How Assumptions of Whiteness Shape Classroom Knowledge”
 

Tu. 18 April Institutional Whiteness and Schooling: Policies and Programs

Readings:

Gilmore, Smith, and Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle”
Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School”
Carter, “Computer-Assisted Racism: Toward an Understanding of ‘Cyberwhiteness’”

Journal assignment: Using the analyses provided in the readings for today, discuss an example of institutional whiteness that you have encountered personally, have read about in the news, or have heard about elsewhere. (2-4 pages)
 

Tu. 25 April Whiteness, Knowledge, and the Academy

Readings:

Andersen, “Overwriting and Other Techniques for Success with Academic Articles”
Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters, 29-42
Ellsworth, “Double Binds of Whiteness”

Optional:

Nakayama and Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric”
Hurtado and Stewart, “Through the Looking Glass: Implications of Studying Whiteness for Feminist Methods”
 

Tu. 2 May Final paper (Book Review) due 6:00 p.m.


Selected Bibliography

Whiteness Studies, Whiteness Theory

compiled by Audrey Thompson


John Alberti, “The Nigger Huck: Race, Identity, and the Teaching of Huckleberry Finn,” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 919-37.

Linda Martín Alcoff, “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 6-26.

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control (London: Verso, 1994).

Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race: Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (London: Verso, 1997).

W. B. Allen, “Response to a ‘White Discourse on Racism,’” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 11-13.

Tomás Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

James D. Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History,”in Learning History in America: Schools, Cultures, and Politics, ed. Lloyd Kramer, Donald Reid, and William L. Barney (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 87-106.

Valerie Babb, Whiteness Visible: The Meaning of Whiteness in American Literature and Culture (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Alison Bailey, “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character,” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 27-42.

James Baldwin, The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948-1985 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).

Daniel Barnardi, The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U. S. Cinema (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996).

Robin M. Bennefield [interviewer], “Whiteness Studies: Deceptive or Welcome Discourse? [Karenga on Whiteness Studies],” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 26-27.

Maurice Berger, White Lies: Race and the Myths of Whiteness (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999).

Bernita C. Berry, “‘I Just See People’: Exercises in Learning the Effects of Racism and Sexism,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 45-51. With an appendix: Marsha Houston, “Why the Dialogues Are Difficult or 15 Ways a Black Woman Knows When a White Woman’s Not Listening” (52-55).

Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996). Original edition: Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, eds., Impacts of Racism on White Americans (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Pub., 1981). [Published in cooperation with the Institute for the Study of Contemporary Social Problems]

Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says about Race in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999).

Jennifer DeVere Brody, Impossible Purities: Blackness, Femininity, and Victorian Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith, eds., Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984).

Judith Butler, “Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia,” in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban Uprising, ed. Robert Gooding-Williams (New York: Routledge, 1993), 15-22.

Robert T. Carter, “White Racial Identity,” in The Influence of Race and Racial Identity in Psychotherapy (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995), 100-14.

Vicki K. Carter, “Computer-Assisted Racism: Toward an Understanding of ‘Cyberwhiteness,’” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 269-83.

Center for the Study of White American Culture [Web site] http://www.euroamerican.org/

Angie Chabram-Dernersesian, “On the Social Construction of Whiteness within Selected Chicana/o Discourses,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 107-164.

Virginia Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 66-78.

Ward Churchill, “White Studies: The Intellectual Imperialism of U. S. Higher Education,” in Beyond Comfort Zones in Multiculturalism: Confronting the Politics of Privilege, ed. Sandra Jackson and José Solís (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1995), 17-35.

Christine Clark and James O’Donnell, eds., Becoming and Unbecoming White: Owning and Disowning a Racial Identity (Westport, CT: Begin & Garvey, 1999).

Marilyn Cochran-Smith, “Uncertain Allies: Understanding the Boundaries of Race and Teaching,” Harvard Educational Review 65, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 541-70.

Victoria Davion, “Reflections on the Meaning of White [Response to Frye],” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 135-39.

Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, eds., Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997).

Virginia R. Dominguez, White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986).

W. E. B. Du Bois, An ABC of Color (New York: International Publishers, 1989). [Orig. 1963]

W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Souls of White Folk,” in W. E. B. Du Bois: A Reader, ed. David Levering Lewis (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995), 453-65. [Orig. 1920]

Ann DuCille, “Barbie in Black and White,” in The Barbie Chronicles: A Living Doll Turns Forty, ed. Yona Zeldis McDonough (New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1999), 127-42.

Richard Dyer, White (London: Routledge, 1997).

Richard Dyer, “White,” Screen 29, no. 4 (Autumn 1988): 44-64.

Elizabeth Ellsworth, “Double Binds of Whiteness,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 259-69.

Joe R. Feagin and Hernán Vera, White Racism: The Basics (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Abby L. Ferber, White Man Falling: Race, Gender and White Supremacy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

Barbara J. Fields, “Ideology and Race in American History,” in Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward, ed. J. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 143-77.

Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong, eds., Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, and Linda C. Powell, “Communities of Difference: A Critical Look at Desegregated Spaces Created for and by Youth,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 247-84.

Shelley Fisher Fishkin, “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ Complicating ‘Blackness’: Remapping American Culture,” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 428-66.

Barbara J. Flagg, Was Blind, But Now I See: White Race Consciousness and the Law (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Ruth Frankenberg, ed., Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997).

Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).

Ruth Frankenberg, “‘When We Are Capable of Stopping, We Begin to See’: Being White, Seeing Whiteness,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 2-17.

Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Willful Virgin: Essays in Feminism, 1976-1992 (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1992), 147-69. Also: Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 113-34.

John Gabriel, Whitewash: Racialized Politics and the Media (London: Routledge, 1998).

Jane Gaines, “White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory,” Screen 29, no. 4 (Autumn 1988): 12-27. [An earlier version appeared in Cultural Critique 4 (Fall 1986).]

Charles A. Gallagher, “White Reconstruction in the University,” Socialist Review 94, nos. 1 & 2 (1995): 165-87.

Henry Louis Gates, Jr., “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man,” In Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 143-62. [Orig. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man,” New Yorker LXXI (October 23, 1995): 56-65.]

Perry Gilmore, David M. Smith, and Apacuar Larry Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 90-99.

Henry A. Giroux, “Rewriting the Discourse of Racial Identity: Towards a Pedagogy and Politics of Whiteness,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 285-320.

Susan Gubar, Racechanges: White Skin, Black Face in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Robert V. Guthrie, Even the Rat Was White: A Historical View of Psychology, 2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998). [Orig. 1976]

Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York: Pantheon, 1998).

Phillip Hamilton, “Revolutionary Principles and Family Loyalties: Slavery’s Transformation in the St. George Tucker Household of Early National Virginia,” The William and Mary Quarterly (Third Series) 55, no. 4 (October 1998): 531-56.

Cheryl I. Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” Harvard Law Review 106, no. 8 (June 1993): 1707-1791. Reprinted in abbreviated form as Cheryl I. Harris, “Whiteness as Property,” in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement, ed. Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York: The New Press, 1995), 276-91.

John Hartigan, Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).

Janet E. Helms, A Race Is a Nice Thing to Have: A Guide to Being a White Person or Understanding the White Persons in Your Life (Topeka, KS: Content Communications, 1992).

Janet E. Helms, ed., Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research, and Practice (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990).

Janet E. Helms, “Racial Identity and ‘Racial’ Constructs,” in Human Diversity: Perspectives on People in Context, ed. Edison J. Trickett, Roderick J. Watts, and Dina Birman (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994), 285-311.

Janet E. Helms, “Toward a Model of White Racial Identity Development,” in Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research, and Practice, ed. Janet E. Helms (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990), 49-66.

Rosemary Henze, Tamara Lucas, and Beverly Scott, “Dancing with the Monster: Teachers Discuss Racism, Power, and White Privilege in Education,” The Urban Review 30, no. 3 (1998): 187-210.

Mike Hill, ed., Whiteness: A Critical Reader (New York: New York University Press, 1997).

bell hooks, Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

bell hooks, “Gangsta Culture — Sexism and Misogyny: Who Will Take the Rap?” in Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations (New York: Routledge, 1994), 115-23.

bell hooks, “Representations of Whiteness,” in hooks, Black Looks: Race and Representation (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 165-78.

bell hooks, “Representations of Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Killing Rage: Ending Racism (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995), 31-50.

bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Cultural Studies, ed. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson, and Paula A. Treichler, with Linda Baughman and John Macgregor Wise (New York: Routledge, 1992), 338-46. Reprinted as: bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 165-79.

Reginald Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981).

Gary R. Howard, We Can’t Teach What We Don’t Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools (New York: Teachers College Press, 1999).

Gary R. Howard, “Whites in Multicultural Education: Rethinking Our Role,” Phi Delta Kappan 75, no. 1 (September 1993): 36-41.

Aída Hurtado and Abigail J. Stewart, “Through the Looking Glass: Implications of Studying Whiteness for Feminist Methods,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 297-311.

Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Noel Ignatiev, “The Point is Not to Interpret Whiteness but to Abolish It” [a talk given at the conference “The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness,” Berkeley, California, April 11-13, 1997], Race Traitor [online feature articles and editorials]   http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/thepoint.html

Noel Ignatiev, “Race Traitor: Abolitionism and ‘White Studies’” [based on a talk at the University of California-Riverside, February, 1998 ], Race Traitor [online feature articles and editorials]   http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/features/whitestudies.html

Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, eds., Race Traitor (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998).

Robert Jensen, “More Thoughts on Why System of White Privilege Is Wrong,” Baltimore Sun (July 4, 1999), Perspectives Section, 1C; search at http://www.sunspot.net/

Robert Jensen, “White Privilege Shapes the U.S.,” Baltimore Sun (July 19, 1998); reprinted at http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~rjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm

Kathe Jervis, “‘How Come There Are No Brothers on That List?’ Hearing the Hard Questions All Children Ask,” Harvard Educational Review 66, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 546-76.

Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968).

Julie Kailin, “How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in ‘Liberal’ Lakeview,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 724-50.

Judy H. Katz, White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-Racism Training (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978).

Melanie Kaye/Kantrowitz, “Jews in the U. S.: The Rising Costs of Whiteness,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 120-37.

AnnLouise Keating, “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ (De)Constructing ‘Race,’” College English 57, no. 8 (December 1995): 901-18.

Louise H. Kidder, “Colonial Remnants: Assumptions of Privilege,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 158-66.

Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault, eds., White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

Joyce E. King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers,” The Journal of Negro Education 60, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 133-46.

Joel Kovel, White Racism: A Psychohistory (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970).

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “White Teachers as Allies: Moving from Awareness to Action,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 333-42.

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice,” Teachers College Record 99, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 162-78.

Jane Lazarre, Beyond the Whiteness of Whiteness: Memoir of a White Mother of Black Sons (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996).

George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998).

George Lipsitz, “The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the ‘White’ Problem in American Studies,” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 369-87.

George Lipsitz, “Toxic Racism [Response],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 416-27.

Ian F. Haney López, White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” Peace and Freedom (July/August, 1989): 10-12. Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” in Race: An Anthology in the First Person, ed. Bart Schneider (New York: Crown, 1997), 120-26.

Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” Working Paper No. 189 (Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, 1988). Also Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 70-81; Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 76-87; and Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 291-99.

Alice McIntyre, Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Peter McLaren, “Decentering Whiteness: In Search of a Revolutionary Multiculturalism,” Multicultural Education 5, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 4-11.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “Learning in the Dark: How Assumptions of Whiteness Shape Classroom Knowledge,” Harvard Educational Review 67, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 321-49.

Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault, “‘They Got the Paradigm and Painted It White’: Whiteness and Pedagogies of Positionality,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 137-58.

Biddy Martin and Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Feminist Politics: What’s Home Got to Do with It?” in Feminist Studies, Critical Studies, ed. Teresa de Lauretis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 191-212.

George A. Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 175-79. Also: George A. Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, ed. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 210-13.

Satya P. Mohanty, “Drawing the Color Line: Kipling and the Culture of Colonial Rule,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 311-43.

Dreama Moon, “White Enculturation and Bourgeois Ideology: The Discursive Production of ‘Good (White) Girls’,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 177-97.

Tracy D. Morgan, “Pages of Whiteness: Race, Physique Magazines, and the Emergence of Public Gay Culture,” in Queer Studies: A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Anthology, ed. Brett Beemyn and Mickey Eliason (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 280-97.

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).

Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin, eds., Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999).

Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness as a Strategic Rhetoric,” in Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity, ed. Thomas K. Nakayama and Judith N. Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1999), 87-106. Originally published as Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, “Whiteness: A Strategic Rhetoric,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81, no. 3 (August 1995): 291-309.

Sarah Neal, “Struggles with the Research Self: Reconciling Feminist Approaches to Antiracist Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 109-21.

Dana D. Nelson, National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998).

Michael Novick, White Lies, White Power: The Fight against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge, 1986).

Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Phyllis Palmer, Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989).

Charmaine Perkins, “Any More Colorful We’d Have to Censor It,” in Radical In<ter>ventions: Identity, Politics, and Difference/s in Educational Praxis, ed. Suzanne de Castell and Mary Bryson (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 247-68.

Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism, by Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984), 11-63.

Amira Proweller, “Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center,” Teachers College Record 100, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 776-808.

Race Traitor http://www.postfun.com/racetraitor/ [Web version of journal]

Sherene H. Razack, Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

Adrienne Rich, “Disloyal to Civilization: Feminism, Racism, Gynephobia,” in On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966-1978 (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979), 275-310.

Nelson M. Rodriguez, “Emptying the Content of Whiteness: Toward an Understanding of the Relation between Whiteness and Pedagogy,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 31-62.

Roberto Rodriguez, “The Study of Whiteness,” Black Issues in Higher Education 16, no. 6 (May 13, 1999): 20-25.

David R. Roediger, Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994).

David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1999). Revised version of David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991).

David R. Roediger, ed., Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means To Be White (New York: Schocken, 1998).

Leslie G. Roman, “White Is a Color! White Defensiveness, Postmodernism, and Antiracist Pedagogy,” in Race, Identity and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 71-88.

Lillian Roybal Rose, “White Identity and Counseling White Allies about Racism,” in Impacts of Racism on White Americans, 2nd ed., ed. Benjamin P. Bowser and Raymond G. Hunt, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub., 1996), 24-47.

Katheryn K. Russell, The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and Other Macroaggressions (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

George J. Sanchez, “Reading Reginald Denny: The Politics of Whiteness in the Late Twentieth Century [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 388-94.

Crispin Sartwell, Act Like You Know: African-American Autobiography and White Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Alexander Saxton, The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (London: Verso, 1990).

Susan Scheckel, The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

James Joseph Scheurich, “A Difficult, Confusing, Painful Problem that Requires Many Voices, Many Perspectives,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 15-16.

James Joseph Scheurich, “Toward a White Discourse on White Racism,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 5-10.

James Joseph Scheurich and Michelle D. Young, “Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?” Educational Researcher 26, no. 4 (May 1997): 4-16.

Mab Segrest, Memoir of a Race Traitor (Boston: South End Press, 1994).

Maxine Seller and Lois Weis, eds., Beyond Black and White: New Faces and Voices in U. S. Schools (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).

Christine E. Sleeter, “Advancing a White Discourse: Response to Scheurich,” Educational Researcher 22, no. 8 (November 1993): 13-15.

Christine E. Sleeter, “How White Teachers Construct Race,” in Race, Identity, and Representation in Education, ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow (New York: Routledge, 1993), 157-71.

Christine E. Sleeter, “Resisting Racial Awareness: How Teachers Understand the Social Order from their Social Locations,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 65-89; “Reflections on My Use of Multicultural and Critical Pedagogy When Students Are White,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 117-34; and “Multicultural Education, Social Positionality, and Whiteness,” in Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 135-53.

Christine E. Sleeter, “White Silence, White Solidarity,” Race Traitor 4 (1995): 14-22.

Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993).

Elizabeth V. Spelman, “‘Race’ and the Labor of Identity,” in Racism and Philosophy, ed. Susan E. Babbitt and Sue Campbell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999), 202-15.

Lois Mark Stalvey, The Education of a WASP (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970).

Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman, “Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism,” in The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance, ed. Dominick LaCapra (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 72-103.

Sharon Stockton, “‘Blacks vs. Browns’: Questioning the White Ground,” College English 57, no. 2 (February 1995): 166-81.

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are all the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” and Other Conversations about Race (New York: Basic Books, 1997).

Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom,” Harvard Educational Review 62, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 1-24.

Henry Louis Taylor, Jr., “The Hidden Face of Racism [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 395-408.

Audrey Thompson, “Colortalk: Whiteness and Off White,” Educational Studies 30, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 141-160.

Audrey Thompson, “[Essay Review of] Off White, edited by Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong,” Education Review (12 November, 1999) [on-line journal] http://coe.asu.edu/edrev/reviews/rev76.htm.

Audrey Thompson, “For: Anti-Racist Education,” Curriculum Inquiry 27, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 7-44.

Audrey Thompson, “Not the Color Purple: Black Feminist Lessons for Educational Caring,” Harvard Educational Review 68, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 522-54.

Becky Thompson, “Time Traveling and Border Crossing: Reflections on White Identity,” in Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity, ed. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi (New York: Routledge, 1996), 92-109.

Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds., Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity (New York: Routledge, 1996).

Connie Titone, “Educating the White Teacher As Ally,” in White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America, ed. Joe L. Kincheloe, Shirley R. Steinberg, Nelson M. Rodriguez, and Ronald E. Chennault (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 159-75.

Barry Troyna, “‘The Whites of My Eyes, Nose, Ears . . .’: A Reflexive Account of ‘Whiteness’ in Race-Related Research,” in Researching Racism in Education: Politics, Theory, and Practice, ed. Paul Connolly and Barry Troyna (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1998), 95-108.

France Winddance Twine, “Brown-Skinned White Girls: Class, Culture, and the Construction of White Identity in Suburban Communities,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 214-243.

Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History (London: Verso, 1991).

John Warren, “Whiteness and Cultural Theory: Perspectives on Research and Education,” The Urban Review 31, no. 2 (June 1999): 185-203.

Lois Weis, Amira Proweller, and Craig Centrie, “Re-examining ‘A Moment in History’: Loss of Privilege inside White Working-Class Masculinity in the 1990s,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 210-26.

David Wellman, “Minstrel Shows, Affirmative Action Talk, and Angry White Men: Marking Racial Otherness in the 1990s,” in Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), 311-331.

Jack E. White, “Prejudice? Perish the Thought,” Time 153, no. 9 (March 8, 1999): 36.

Whiteness Studies: Beyond the Pale < http://www.uwm.edu/People/gjay/Whiteness/ [web site]

Stephanie M. Wildman, with Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne D. Davis, and Trina Grillo, Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Privilege Undermines America (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Walter E. Williams, “A Tragic Vision of Black Problems [Response to Lipsitz],” American Quarterly 47, no. 3 (September, 1995): 409-15. [against whiteness theory]

George Yúdice, “Neither Impugning nor Disavowing Whiteness Does a Viable Politics Make: The Limits of Identity Politics,” in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s, ed. Christopher Newfield and Ronald Strickland (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 255-85.
 


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