Spring 2004
Audrey Thompson
University of Utah
308C MBH off. # (801) 587-7803
Class meets M 4:35-7:05 p.m.
MBH 105
Office Hours: M 1-4:30 & H 1-5:30
and by appointment
fax. (801) 587-7801, receptionist: 587-7814
email:

Narrative, Storytelling, and Constructions of Racial Meaning
ECS 6620-001/7620-001
Seminar in Philosophy of Education
http://www.pauahtun.org/audrey.html

Course Description

Conceptions of authentic learning about racial others, racial progress and change, and anti-racist pedagogy are all caught up with implicit or explicit narratives. This course draws on philosophical work regarding authenticity, recognition, empathy, and dialogue, along with analyses of textbook narratives, documentary narratives, classroom narratives, and oppositional critical race theory narratives, to examine what Sherene Razack calls “storytelling for racial change.” The purpose of the course is to examine social and classroom relationships, as well as intellectual and educational expectations, in light of how they are shaped by racialized and cultural narrative structures, genres, and assumptions about audience.

Required Texts:

The readings will be available on electronic reserve at the Marriott University Library or will be provided in class. Some handouts will be available on the electronic version of the syllabus.

Course Requirements

As a seminar, this class primarily will engage in large-group discussion. However, we also will do small-group work and occasionally I will provide short lectures. Each student also will be asked to take a turn at presenting and analyzing a particular text; I will ask students to let me know in advance as to which of the readings they will be preparing for discussion. Other course requirements include regular attendance and participation; participation in a children’s biography project; two short papers; and a longer final paper, which is to be a revised and extended version of one of the short papers.
 

Class attendance and participation; biography project; presentation of one course reading 25%
Two short papers (20% each) 40%
Final paper (revised and extended version of one of the short papers)  35%

The children’s biography project requires reading either a full children’s biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. (if the biography is short) or reading one or two chapters from a longer children’s biography (depending on the length of the chapters), filling out a worksheet about the book, and coming to class prepared to engage in small-group work discussing the biographies in relation to the other readings for that week. (The worksheet is available as an electronic link on the syllabus.)

Each of the short papers should be 8 pages long; the final paper is to be 15 pages long. Please carefully proofread your papers before turning them in. The papers should be double-spaced, with 1-inch margins, in a 12-point font. The short papers should draw significantly on 3 or 4 readings from the course (different readings for each paper); the final paper should draw significantly on an additional 3 readings from the later part of the course. The paper should be distinctively a work for this course, drawing on central topics of discussion in the course and on techniques of analysis used in the course, as well as course readings. Feel free to draw upon outside readings as well, but they should not be central to the discussion in your paper. (Talk to me about possible exceptions — if, for example, you would like to do an analysis of an outside memoir, biography, or ethnography, drawing on principles, discussions, and readings from the course.)

Your papers should demonstrate careful organization and development, thoughtful engagement of the readings and class discussions, and specific attention to themes discussed in the course. Each sentence and paragraph should do significant exploratory, explanatory, or pedagogical work. While I look for full sentences and correct spelling and grammar in your papers, I will not be concerned with whether you use a particular citation style correctly. It is a good idea to practice using whichever citation style you expect to employ in your master’s or doctoral thesis, and I encourage you to use Chicago, MLA, APA, or whatever style you will eventually need to be familiar with, but whether you use a formal reference style in the papers for this course is up to you. No formal citation style is required. Any shorthand reference style is fine, as long as it will be clear to me where you drew a claim or quotation from in the readings. Do use page numbers for borrowed material, even if you are not using a direct quotation.

Short paper topics:

1) due 23 February: choose one of the following three themes: a) the im/possibilities and/or asymmetries of listening and reading across difference (e.g., how might Deavere, Painter, Sarris, and Boler agree and disagree about our ability to understand experiences radically different from our own?) OR b) discuss the genre expectations regarding testimony: what narrative, truth, and audience assumptions underlie particular responses to “authentic testimony”? OR c) what are some of the limitations of “storytelling for social change” as commonly practiced (e.g., in progressive classrooms or in history textbooks) and what might a more transformative version of “storytelling for social change” look like? Your paper should take up at least three of the readings in depth. (8 pages)

2) due 5 April: choose one of the following three topics: a) discuss two or three related issues in the discourse of authenticity: for example, how are claims about authenticity mobilized to breach and/or reinforce educational or political/social relationships? OR b) how do oppositional narratives work and how does one teach members of the dominant group to read oppositional narratives? OR c) what do you see as limitations in current constructions of anti-racist teacher identity and/or white anti-racist identity and how might we pursue reconstructions of those identity narratives? Your paper should take up at least three of the readings in depth. (8 pages)

The final paper should revisit and significantly develop and deepen the analysis or argument that you provided in one of your two short papers. The final paper should include discussions either of 3 additional readings from the final part of the course or of 1 or 2 additional readings from the final part of the course and (correspondingly) 2 or 1 of the recommended readings listed on the syllabus. (15 pages)

Classroom Dynamics

As a group, we will actively be interrupting moves that recenter the dominant gaze. This course inquires into the assumptions underlying listening to and reading racialized narratives, and seeks to denormalize dominant genre expectations and metanarratives with regard to race. Thus, it is vital that the dynamics in the course not reposition dominant race narratives at the center. For example, when those of us who are white demand that our needs, expectations, and standards for coherent narratives be met before we can consider stories of “the other” intelligible or legitimate, we are requiring that stories conform in advance to what we are prepared to recognize as authentic or meaningful. The point is not that it is impossible to critique stories outside one’s own experience; on the contrary, the refusal of critique is itself a form of disengagement. But critique will only be respectful and engaged if it proceeds from an appreciation of what is at stake in alternative and oppositional narratives; it cannot proceed from a refusal to move outside of received categories of knowing and ignoring. This course constitutes an inquiry into what it would mean to be prepared to listen and read across race and culture in ways that do not take dominant narrative structures for granted. If education is to prepare us to respond in new and productive ways, we must ask what readers and listeners need to bring to the moment, to participate respectfully and productively. Accordingly, we will attempt to create a shared group experience of learning to read and listen that makes this inquiry project visceral.
 


SCHEDULE

Mon. 12 Jan. Introduction: Storying Race

Handouts:

Video activity and discussion: Mon. 19 Jan. No class: Martin Luther King, Jr., Day Holiday

Mon. 26 Jan. The Construction of Racial Meanings in Biography and Non-Fiction

Readings:

Mon. 2 Feb. The Construction of Racial Meanings in Children’s Fiction

Readings:


Mon. 9 Feb. Whose Story? Racial Storytelling in the Classroom

Readings:


Mon. 16 Feb. No class: President’s Day Holiday

Mon. 23 Feb. Asymmetries of Understanding and Response, I

Readings:


FIRST PAPER DUE (8 pages)
 

Mon. 1 March Asymmetries of Understanding and Response, II

Readings:


Mon. 8 March Oppositional and Alternative Narratives

Readings:


Mon. 15 March SPRING BREAK: CLASS DOES NOT MEET

Mon. 22 March Critical Race Theory and Counter-Stories

Readings:

Mon. 29 March Appropriation, Ignorance, and Authenticity

Readings:


Mon. 5 April White Framings of Anti-Racist Change

Readings:


  SECOND PAPER DUE (8 pages)


Mon. 12 April Relationality and Race

Readings:


Mon. 19 April Recognition and Mis-Recognition

Readings:

Mon. 26 April Storytelling, Race, and Pedagogy

Readings:


Wed. 5 May No Class Meeting

Final paper due in lieu of exam (15 pages)
 
 

Selected Readings List

Elizabeth Abel, “Black Writing, White Reading: Race and the Politics of Feminist Interpretation,” Critical Inquiry 19, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 470-98.

Adalberto Aguirre, Jr., “Academic Storytelling: A Critical Race Theory Story of Affirmative Action,” Sociological Perspectives 43, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 319-39.

Paula Gunn Allen, The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Traditions (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986).

James D. Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History,” in Learning History in America: Schools, Cultures, and Politics, ed. Lloyd Kramer, Donald Reid, and William L. Barney (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 87-106.

James D. Anderson, “Secondary School History Textbooks and the Treatment of Black History,” in The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future, ed. Darlene Clark Hine (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986), 253-74.

Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1987).

Gloria Anzaldúa, ed., Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990).

Arturo Arias, ed., The Rigoberta Menchú Controversy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001).

Betty Bardige, “Things So Finely Human: Moral Sensibilities at Risk in Adolescence,” in Mapping the Moral Domain, ed. Carol Gilligan, Janie Victoria Ward, and Jill McLean Taylor, with Betty Bardige (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988), 87-110.

John Beverley, “What Happens when the Subaltern Speaks: Rigoberta Menchú, Multiculturalism, and the Presumption of Equal Worth,” in The Rigoberta Menchú Controversy, ed. Arturo Arias (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 219-36

Traveller Bird, Tell Them They Lie: The Sequoyah Myth (Los Angeles: Westernlore Pub., 1971).

Rudine Sims Bishop, “Evaluating Books by and about African-Americans,” in The Multicolored Mirror: Cultural Substance in Literature for Children and Young Adults, ed. Merri V. Lindgren/Cooperative Children’s Book Center (Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1991), 31-44.

Mary Black-Rogers, “Ojibwa Power Interactions: Creating Contexts for ‘Respectful Talk’,” in Native North American Interaction Patterns, ed. Regna Darnell and Michael K. Foster (Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization/National Museums of Canada, 1988), 44-68.

Owen Blank, Jim Davis, Jacquelyn G. Drews, Paul Drews, Sue Haley, Andrew Horowitz, Louis L. Knowles, Sue Mithune, Kenneth Prewitt, and Peter Ware, “The Miseducation of White Children,” in Institutional Racism in America, ed. Louis L. Knowles and Kenneth Prewitt (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969), 46-57.

David W. Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Cambridge: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2001).

Leslie Rebecca Bloom, Under the Sign of Hope: Feminist Methodology and Narrative Interpretation (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998).

Jacqueline Bobo, Black Women as Cultural Readers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995).

Megan Boler, “The Risks of Empathy: Interrogating Multiculturalism’s Gaze,” in Philosophy of Education 1994, ed. Michael S. Katz (Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 1995), 208-19. Reprinted as: Megan Boler, “The Risks of Empathy: Interrogating Multiculturalism’s Gaze,” Cultural Studies 11, no. 2 (1997): 253-73.

Eduardo Bonilla-Silva and Tyrone A. Forman, “‘I’ m Not a Racist but . . . ’: Mapping White College Students’ Racial Ideology in the U.S.A.,” Discourse and Society 11, no. 1 (January 2000): 50-85.

Cynthia Stokes Brown, Refusing Racism: White Allies and the Struggle for Civil Rights (New York: Teachers College Press, 2002).

Patricia Burdell and Beth Blue Swadener, “Critical Personal Narrative and Autoethnography in Education: Reflections on a Genre,” Educational Researcher 28, no. 6 (August-September 1999): 21-26.

Judith Butler, “Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia,” in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban Uprising, ed. Robert Gooding-Williams (New York: Routledge, 1993), 15-22.

Judith Butler, “Lana’s ‘Imitation’: Melodramatic Repetition and the Gender Performative,” Genders 9 (November 1990): 1-18.

Hazel V. Carby, “The Multicultural Wars,” in Black Popular Culture: A Project by Michele Wallace, ed. Gina Dent (Seattle: Bay Press, 1992), 187-99.

Allen Carey-Webb, “Teaching, Testimony, and Truth: Rigoberta Menchú’s Credibility in the North American Classroom,” in The Rigoberta Menchú Controversy, ed. Arturo Arias (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 309-31.

Clayborne Carson, “Martin Luther King, Jr.: Charismatic Leadership in a Mass Struggle,” The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September, 1987): 448-54.

Robert Chang, “Toward an Asian American Legal Scholarship: Critical Race Theory, Post-structuralism, and Narrative Space,” California Law Review 81, no. 5 (October 1993): 1241-1323.

Avon Crismore, “The Rhetoric of Textbooks: Metadiscourse,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 16, no. 3 (July-Sept. 1984): 279-96.

Suzanne de Castell, “Literacy as Disempowerment: The Role of Documentary Texts,” in Philosophy of Education 1990, ed. David P. Ericson (Normal, IL: The Philosophy of Education Society), 74-84.

Mary V. Dearborn, Pocahontas’s Daughters: Gender and Ethnicity in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Richard Delgado, “Rodrigo’s Eleventh Chronicle: Empathy and False Empathy,” California Law Review 84, no. 1 (January 1996): 61-100. Also: Richard Delgado, “Empathy and False Empathy: The Problem with Liberalism,” in The Coming Race War? and Other Apocalyptic Tales of America after Affirmative Action and Welfare (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 4-36.

Richard Delgado, “Storytelling for Oppositionists and Others: A Plea for Narrative,” Michigan Law Review 87, no. 8 (August 1989): 2411-41.

Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).

Norman K. Denzin, “The Art and Politics of Interpretation,” in Handbook of Qualitative Research, ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1994), 500-15.

Manthia Diawara, “Black Spectatorship: Problems of Identification and Resistance,” Screen 29 (Winter 1988): 66-76.

C. K. Doreski, Writing American Black: Race Rhetoric in the Public Sphere (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Ann duCille, “The Occult of True Black Womanhood: Critical Demeanor and Black Feminist Studies,” Signs 19, no. 3 (Spring 1994): 591-629.

Troy Duster, “They’re Taking Over! and Other Myths about Race on Campus,” in Higher Education under Fire: Politics, Economics, and the Crisis of the Humanities, ed. Michael Bérubé and Cary Nelson (New York: Routledge, 1995), 276-83.

Elizabeth Ellsworth, “Why Doesn’t This Feel Empowering? Working through the Repressive Myths of Critical Pedagogy,” Harvard Educational Review 59, no. 3 (August 1989): 297-324.

Fenwick W. English, “A Critical Appraisal of Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot’s Portraiture as a Method of Educational Research,” Educational Researcher 29, no. 7 (October 2000): 21-26.

Patricia Ewick and Susan B. Silbey, “Subversive Stories and Hegemonic Tales: Toward a Sociology of Narrative,” Law and Society Review 29, no. 2 (1995): 197-226.

Shoshana Felman and Dori Laub, Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History (New York: Routledge, 1992).

Shoshana Felman, “Education and Crisis, or the Vicissitudes of Teaching,” in Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History, by Shoshana Felman and Dori Laub (New York: Routledge, 1992), 1-56.

Ann Ferguson, “Resisting the Veil of Privilege: Building Bridge Identities as an Ethico-Politics of Global Feminisms,” in Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World, ed. Uma Narayan and Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 189-207. Originally: Ann Ferguson, “Resisting the Veil of Privilege: Building Bridge Identities as an Ethico-Politics of Global Feminisms,” Hypatia 13, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 95-113.

Peter G. Filene, “Narrating Progressivism: Unitarians v. Pluralists v. Students,” Journal of American History 79, no. 4 (March 1993): 1546-62.

Frances FitzGerald, America Revised: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century (New York: Vintage, 1979).

Susan Stanford Friedman, “Beyond White and Other: Relationality and Narratives of Race in Feminist Discourse,” Signs 21, no. 1 (Autumn 1995): 1-49.

Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Willful Virgin: Essays in Feminism, 1976-1992 (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1992), 147-69. Also: Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Overcoming Racism and Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 1995), 113-34.

Coco Fusco, English Is Broken Here: Notes on Cultural Fusion in the Americas (New York: The New Press, 1995).

David J. Garrow, “Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Spirit of Leadership,” The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September, 1987): 438-47.

Robert Granfield and Thomas Koenig, “The Fate of Elite Idealism: Accommodation and Ideological Work at Harvard Law School,” Social Problems 39, no. 4 (November 1992): 315-31.

John Langston Gwaltney, Drylongso: A Self-Portrait of Black America (New York: Vintage, 1980).

Carl Gutiérrez-Jones, Critical Race Narratives: A Study of Race, Rhetoric, and Injury (New York: New York University Press, 2001).

Vincent Gordon Harding, “Beyond Amnesia: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Future of America,” The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September, 1987): 468-76.

Helen Harper, “When the Big Snow Melts: White Women Teaching in Canada’s North,” in Working through Whiteness: International Perspectives, ed. Cynthia Levine-Rasky (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), 269-88.

Cheryl Harris, “Finding Sojourner’s Truth: Race, Gender, and the Institution of Property,” Cardozo Law Review 18, no. 2 (November 1996): 309-409.

Lynne Henderson, “Legality and Empathy,” Michigan Law Review 85, no. 7 (June 1987): 1574-1653.

Fred Hobson, But Now I See: The White Southern Racial Conversion Narrative (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999).

International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 13, no. 2 (March-April 2000). Special Issue: The Rigoberta Menchú Controversy: The Nature and Politics of Truth and Representation in a Postmodern Era.

Georgia Johnson, “The Colonized Child on the Tundra,” Journal of Children’s Literature 21, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 24-30.

Alison Jones, “The Limits of Cross-Cultural Dialogue: Pedagogy, Desire, and Absolution in the Classroom,” Educational Theory 49, no. 3 (Summer 1999): 299-316.

Herbert Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited,” in Should We Burn Babar? Essays on Children’s Literature and the Power of Stories (New York: The New Press, 1995), 30-56.

The Latina Feminist Group, Telling to Live: Latina Feminist Testimonios (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001).

Dori Laub, “Bearing Witness, or the Vicissitudes of Listening,” in Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History, by Shoshana Felman and Dori Laub (New York: Routledge, 1992), 57-74.

Sarah Lawrence-Lightfoot and Jessica Hoffman Davis, The Art and Science of Portraiture (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

Sky Lee, Lee Maracle, Daphne Marlatt, and Betsy Warland, eds., Telling It: Women and Language across Cultures (Vancouver: Press Gang, 1990).

James W. Loewen, Lies across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (New York: The New Press, 1999).

James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1995). Also: James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (New York: The New Press, 1995).

María C. Lugones, “On the Logic of Pluralist Feminism,” in Feminist Ethics, ed. Claudia Card (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 35-44.

María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception,” in Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, ed. Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989), 275-90. Reprinted in María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception,” in Lesbian Philosophies and Cultures, ed. Jeffner Allen (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990), 159-80; and María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception,” in Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, 2nd ed., ed. Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall (New York: Routledge, 1996), 419-33. Also: María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception,” in Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation Books, 1990), 390-402. Orig: María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Travelling, and Loving Perception,” Hypatia 2, no. 2 (Summer 1987): 3-19.

María C. Lugones and Elizabeth V. Spelman, “Have We Got a Theory for You! Feminist Theory, Cultural Imperialism and the Demand for ‘the Woman’s Voice,’” Women’s Studies International Forum 6 (1983): 573-81. Reprinted as: María C. Lugones and Elizabeth V. Spelman, “Have We Got a Theory for You! Feminist Theory, Cultural Imperialism and the Demand for ‘the Woman’s Voice,’” in Hypatia Reborn: Essays in Feminist Philosophy, ed. Azizah Y. al-Hibri and Margaret A. Simons (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), 18-33.

Beatrice Lumpkin, “Ancient Egypt for Children — Facts, Fiction, and Lies,” in How Much Truth Do We Tell the Children? The Politics of Children’s Literature, ed. Betty Bacon (Minneapolis: Marxist Educational Press, 1988), 185-95.

Michael Patrick MacDonald, All Souls: A Family Story from Southie (New York: Ballantine Books, 1999).

Emily Martin, “The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles,” in Gender and Scientific Authority, ed. Barbara Laslett, Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, Helen Longino, and Evelynn Hammonds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 323-39. Originally: Emily Martin, “The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles,” Signs 16, no. 3 (Spring 1991): 485-501.

Mari Matsuda, “Affirmative Action and Legal Knowledge: Planting Seeds in Plowed-Up Ground,” Harvard Women’s Law Journal 11 (Spring 1988): 1-17.

Rebecca Meacham, “The Entanglements of Teaching Nappy Hair,” in Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics, ed. Bonnie TuSmith and Maureen T. Reddy (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002), 71-83.

Miguel A. Méndez, “Lawyers, Linguists, Story-Tellers, and Limited English-Speaking Witnesses,” New Mexico Law Review 27, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 77-99.

Michigan Law Review 87, no. 8 (August 1989) [special issue on Legal Storytelling].

Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981/1983).

Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (New York: Vintage: Random House, 1992).

David Murray, Forked Tongues: Speech, Writing and Representation in North American Indian Texts (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).

Greg Myers, “Stories and Styles in Two Molecular Biology Review Articles,” in Textual Dynamics of the Professions: Historical and Contemporary Studies of Writing in Professional Communities, ed. Charles Bazerman and James Paradis (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), 45-75.

Uma Narayan, “Working together across Differences: Some Considerations on Emotions and Political Practice,” Hypatia 3, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 31-47.

Perry Nodelman, “The Other: Orientalism, Colonialism, and Children’s Literature,” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 17, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 29-35.

Eileen O’Brien, Whites Confront Racism: Antiracists and Their Paths to Action (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).

Kelly Oliver, “Beyond Recognition: Witnessing Ethics,” Philosophy Today 44, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 31-43.

Kelly Oliver, “Identity, Difference, and Abjection,” in Theorizing Multiculturalism: A Guide to the Current Debate, ed. Cynthia Willett (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), 169-86.

Kelly Oliver, Witnessing: Beyond Recognition (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001).

Nell Irvin Painter, “Representing Truth: Sojourner Truth’s Knowing and Becoming Known,” Journal of American History 81, no. 2 (September 1994): 461-92.

Michael Paris, “Country Blues on the Screen: The Leadbelly Films,” Journal of American Studies 30, no. 1 (April 1996): 119-25.

Daphne Patai, “Ethical Problems of Personal Narratives, or, Who Should Eat the Last Piece of Cake?” International Journal of Oral History 8, no. 1 (February 1987): 5-27.

Jeanne Perreault, “White Feminist Guilt, Abject Scripts, and (Other) Transformative Necessities,” West Coast Line 28, no. 13/14 (Spring/Fall 1994): 226-38. [Colour: An Issue, special double issue, ed. Roy Miki and Fred Wah]

Richard A. Posner, “Narrative and Narratology in Classroom and Courtroom,” Philosophy and Literature 21, no. 2 (October 1997): 292-305.

Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti-Semitism and Racism, by Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (New York: Long Haul Press, 1984), 11-63. Also: Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” Rebellion: Essays 1980-1991 (Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books, 1991), 27-81.

Sherene H. Razack, “Storytelling for Social Change,” in Returning the Gaze: Essays on Racism, Feminism and Politics, ed. Himani Bannerji (Toronto, ON: Sister Vision Press, 1993), 83-100. Also: Sherene H. Razack, “The Gaze from the Other Side: Storytelling for Social Change,” in Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), 36-55.

Chris P. Rice, Grace Matters: A True Story of Race, Friendship, and Faith in the Heart of the South (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002).

Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage/Random House, 1978/1979).

Greg Sarris, “Storytelling in the Classroom: Crossing Vexed Chasms,” in Keeping Slug Woman Alive: A Holistic Approach to American Indian Texts (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 149-68.

Greg Sarris, “’What I’m Talking about when I’m Talking about My Baskets’: Conversations with Mabel McKay,” in De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in Women’s Autobiography, ed. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992), 20-33.

Susan Scheckel, The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).

Carol Schick, “‘By Virtue of Being White’: Resistance in Anti-Racist Pedagogy,” Race Ethnicity and Education 3, no. 1 (February 2000): 83-102.

Ofelia Schutte, “Cultural Alterity: Cross-Cultural Communication and Feminist Theory in North-South Contexts,” in Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World, ed. Uma Narayan and Sandra Harding (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 47-66. Originally: Ofelia Schutte, “Cultural Alterity: Cross-Cultural Communication and Feminist Theory in North-South Contexts,” Hypatia 13, no. 2 (Spring 1998): 53-72.

Doris Seale, “1492-1992 from an American Indian Perspective,” in The Multicolored Mirror: Cultural Substance in Literature for Children and Young Adults, ed. Merri V. Lindgren/Cooperative Children’s Book Center (Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1991), 101-16.

Mab Segrest, Memoir of a Race Traitor (Boston: South End Press, 1994).

Rudine Sims, Shadow and Substance: Afro-American Experience in Contemporary Children’s Fiction (Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1982).

Beverly Slapin and Doris Seale, eds., Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992).

Anna Deavere Smith, Fires in the Mirror: Crown Heights, Brooklyn, and Other Identities (Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 1993). [81 min. video]

Barbara Smith, “Toward a Black Feminist Criticism,” in The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory, ed. Elaine Showalter (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 168-85.

Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1949). Also: Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1961).

Valerie Smith, Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Daniel G. Solorzano and Tara J. Yosso, “Critical Race and LatCrit Theory and Method: Counter-Storytelling,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 14, no. 4 (July-August 2001): 471-95.

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Can the Subaltern Speak?” in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 271-313.

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