Introduction to Critical and Cultural Studies in Education
ECS 6600-001
Audrey Thompson
University of Utah
Summer 2004
Office: 308C MBH
mailbox in 307 MBH
Office Hours:
off. 587-7803
Tu & W 3:00-5:15
meets T, H 5:15-8:15 p.m.
recept. 587-7814
and by appt.
in 386 MBH
email:

Overview

As an introduction to the master’s program in Education, Culture, and Society, this course explores a variety of disciplinary approaches to understanding educational issues in cultural and social context. History, philosophy, anthropology, and sociology of education offer distinctive perspectives on such issues as democratic inclusion, schooling as access to power, liberatory pedagogies, and the role of institutions in providing caring classrooms for all students. Goals of this course include introducing new master’s students to different theories and disciplinary sense-making practices, providing some initial background for understanding current educational conflicts, and helping students evaluate educational arguments and analyses both in discussion and in formal and informal written work.

Structure

The class will meet twice a week, each time discussing the readings on the syllabus. To participate actively in class, it is essential that you read carefully, prepare questions, and jot down any issues you wish to discuss. I will do some extended lectures but for the most part will make short presentations to provide frameworks or necessary background information. My primary role will be to ask questions, clarify points raised in our discussions, and summarize the important issues that we discuss.

Course Requirements

In addition to the assigned reading and class discussion, and three very short (1-page) assignments, there will be two papers due during the semester. The midterm paper should be 6 pages in length, typed and double-spaced. The final paper should be 10-12 pages long, typed and double-spaced. There is no final exam. All written work should not only demonstrate an understanding of class discussion and of the specific texts used in the course, but should also bring to bear students’ own perspectives and insights.

Midterm paper topics: Discuss either 1) how schools as institutions create learning (or non-learning) environments for particular groups of students; or 2) how schools might work with communities to explore alternative pedagogical and curricular approaches. Other topics can also be arranged.

Final paper topics: Drawing on at least one outside reading (e.g., an article or chapter from the selected reading list below, apart from those already assigned in the course; other readings can be used, instead, however), 1) explore what it would mean to teach students to be detectives in the search for what counts as knowledge, or 2) revisit some aspect of your existing curriculum and pedagogy to consider how you might teach students to think against the grain and outside of received categories, invisible norms, and dominant narratives. Other topics can also be arranged.
 

Participation and attendance: 20% of grade
Mini-papers: 15% of grade
Midterm Paper: 25% of grade
Final paper: 40% of grade

Required Texts

The individual articles assigned on the syllabus are on e-reserve at the library. The following books are available for purchase at the University Bookstore and will be on reserve at the library.

Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb, Jr., Radical Equations: Civil Rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).

Laurie Olsen, Made in America: Immigrant Students in Our Public Schools (New York: The New Press, 1997).

Myra Zarnowski, History Makers: A Questioning Approach to Reading and Writing Biographies (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003).

Schedule of Class Topics and Reading

Th. 24 June                    Introduction: Changing the Frame

Topics: Reading for the frame and reading for assumptions (e.g., otherness, binaries, norms, organizing narratives)

Readings:

Activity: Deconstructing Mulan

Tu. 29 June                     Reading and Writing for the Argument

Readings:

Recommended:

Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy, “Hiding in the Ivy: American Indian Students and Visibility in Elite Educational Settings,” Harvard Educational Review 74, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 125-52.

Andrew Gitlin, Edward Buendía, Kristin Crosland, and Fodé Doumbia, “The Production of Margin and Center: Welcoming-Unwelcoming of Immigrant Students,” American Educational Research Journal 40, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 91-122.

Short assignment (1 page): Summarize a pattern in the readings that you found significant and give two examples. Explain why it is a significant pattern.

Th. 1 July                     Reading and Writing for Analysis

Readings:

Recommended:

Frank Margonis, “From Student Resistance to Educative Engagement:  A Case Study in Building Powerful Student-Teacher Relationships,” in No Education without Relation, ed. Charles Bingham and Alexander M. Sidorkin (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004), 39-53.

Angela Valenzuela, Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999).

Tu. 6 July                     Teaching for Social Change

Readings:

Recommended:

Joyce E. King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers,” The Journal of Negro Education 60, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 133-46.

Cris Mayo, “Relations Are Difficult,” in No Education without Relation, ed. Charles Bingham and Alexander M. Sidorkin (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004), 121-35.

Short assignment (1 page): Describe two implications for teacher education that you have taken from the readings thus far.

Th. 8 July                     Writing, Reader Response, and Discourses of Power

Readings:

Activity: Deconstructing textbooks and yearbooks (bring a textbook and a yearbook to class)

Recommended:

Judith Fetterley, “Reading about Reading: ‘A Jury of Her Peers,’ ‘The Murders in the Rue Morgue,’ and ‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’” in Gender and Reading: Essays on Readers, Texts, and Contexts, ed. Elizabeth A. Flynn and Patrocinio P. Schweickart (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), 147-64.

Tu. 13 July                     The Presence of an Absence

Readings:

Activity: Deconstructing The Civil War (PBS)

Recommended:

Greg Dimitriadis, “‘Making History Go’ at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth,” Theory and Research in Social Education 28, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 40-64.

Th. 15 July                     Constructions of Race

Readings:

Recommended:

Perry Gilmore, David M. Smith, and Apacuar Larry Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 90-99.

Tu. 20 July                     Challenging Schooling as Usual, I

Readings:

Recommended:

John M. Glen, Highlander: No Ordinary School, 1932-1962 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988).

Th. 22 July                     Challenging Schooling as Usual, II

Readings:

Recommended:

William Ayers, “‘We Who Believe in Freedom Cannot Rest Until It’s Done’: Two Dauntless Women of the Civil Rights Movement and the Education of a People,” Harvard Educational Review 59, no. 4 (November 1989): 520-28.

Midterm Paper due

Tu. 27 July                     Reading against the Grain

Readings:

Activity: Deconstructing the documentary video Mahalia Jackson Elementary School/2nd Grade, Harlem, New York

Recommended:

Harry Smaller, “Words about Classrooms: What Can One Letter Tell Us?,” in Silences and Images: The Social History of the Classroom, ed. Ian Grosvenor, Martin Lawn and Kate Rousmaniere (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), 105-20.

Th. 29 July                     Students as Authors

Readings:

Recommended:

Herbert Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited,” in Should We Burn Babar? Essays on Children’s Literature and the Power of Stories (New York: The New Press, 1995), 30-56.

Short assignment (1 page): Discuss one strength and one limitation of Zarnowski’s approach, as you see it.

Tu. 3 Aug.                     Students Thinking against the Grain

Readings:

Recommended:

Clayborne Carson, “Martin Luther King, Jr.: Charismatic Leadership in a Mass Struggle,” The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September, 1987): 448-54.

Fri. 6 Aug.                     Final paper due 5:30 p.m.
 
 

Selected Reading List

David Wallace Adams, Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995).

Linda D. Addo, “Septima Poinsette Clark,” in Women Educators in the United States, 1820-1993: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook, ed. Maxine Schwartz Seller (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), 119-26.

James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1988).

James D. Anderson, “How We Learn about Race through History,” in Learning History in America: Schools, Cultures, and Politics, ed. Lloyd Kramer, Donald Reid, and William L. Barney (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 87-106.

Jean Anyon, “Intersections of Gender and Class: Accommodation and Resistance by Working-Class and Affluent Females to Contradictory Sex-Role Ideologies,” in Gender, Class and Education, ed. Stephen Walker and Len Barton (Barcombe, England: The Falmer Press, 1983), 19-37.

William Ayers, “‘We Who Believe in Freedom Cannot Rest Until It’s Done’: Two Dauntless Women of the Civil Rights Movement and the Education of a People,” Harvard Educational Review 59, no. 4 (November 1989): 520-28.

Betty Bardige, “Things so Finely Human: Moral Sensibilities at Risk in Adolescence,” in Mapping the Moral Domain: A Contribution of Women’s Thinking to Psychological Theory and Education, ed. Carol Gilligan, Janie Victoria Ward, and Jill McLean Taylor, with Betty Bardige (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988), 87-110.

Keith C. Barton, “A Picture’s Worth: Analyzing Historical Photographs in the Elementary Grades,” Social Education 65, no. 5 (September 2001): 278-83.

Bill Bigelow, “On the Road to Cultural Bias: A Critique of the ‘The Oregon Trail’ CD-ROM,” in Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development, ed. Enid Lee, Deborah Menkart, and Margo Okazawa-Rey (Washington, DC: Teaching for Change, 1998/2002), 359-68.

Charles Bingham and Alexander M. Sidorkin, eds., No Education without Relation (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004).

Rudine Sims Bishop, “Evaluating Books by and about African-Americans,” in The Multicolored Mirror: Cultural Substance in Literature for Children and Young Adults, ed. Merri V. Lindgren/Cooperative Children’s Book Center (Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, 1991), 31-44.

Megan Boler, ed., Democratic Dialogue in Education:  Troubling Speech, Disturbing Silence (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004).

Avtar Brah and Rehana Minhas, “Structural Racism or Cultural Difference: Schooling for Asian Girls,” in Just a Bunch of Girls: Feminist Approaches to Schooling, ed. Gaby Weiner (Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, 1985), 14-25.

Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy, “Hiding in the Ivy: American Indian Students and Visibility in Elite Educational Settings,” Harvard Educational Review 74, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 125-52.

Clayborne Carson, “Martin Luther King, Jr.: Charismatic Leadership in a Mass Struggle,” The Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September, 1987): 448-54.

Virginia Chalmers, “White Out: Multicultural Performances in a Progressive School,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 66-78.

Avon Crismore, “The Rhetoric of Textbooks: Metadiscourse,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 16, no. 3 (July-Sept. 1984): 279-96.

Antonia Darder, Rodolfo D. Torres, and Henry Gutiérrez, eds., Latinos and Education: A Critical Reader (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Ann Locke Davidson, “Marbella Sanchez: On Marginalization and Silencing,” in Beyond Black and White: New Faces and Voices in U. S. Schools, ed. Maxine Seller and Lois Weis (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 15-44.

Bronwyn Davies, “The Sense Children Make of Feminist Stories,” in Frogs, Snails and Feminist Tales: Preschool Children and Gender (Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1989), 43-69.

Lennard J. Davis, ed., The Disability Studies Reader (New York: Routledge, 1997).

Suzanne de Castell, “Literacy as Disempowerment: The Role of Documentary Texts,” in Philosophy of Education 1990, ed. David P. Ericson (Normal, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 1991), 74-84.

Mary DeCredico, “Image and Reality: Ken Burns and the Urban Confederacy,” Journal of Urban History 23, no. 4 (May 1997): 387-405.

Lisa D. Delpit, “The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children,” Harvard Educational Review 58, no. 3 (August 1988): 280-98.

Donna Deyhle, “Navajo Youth and Anglo Racism: Cultural Integrity and Resistance,” Harvard Educational Review 65, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 403-44.

Greg Dimitriadis, “‘Making History Go’ at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth,” Theory and Research in Social Education 28, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 40-64.

Anne Haas Dyson, “Cultural Constellations and Childhood Identities: On Greek Gods, Cartoon Heroes, and the Social Lives of Children,” Harvard Educational Review 66, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 471-95.

Linda Eisenmann, “Peggy McIntosh,” in Women Educators in the United States, 1820-1993: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook, ed. Maxine Schwartz Seller (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), 306-14.

Elizabeth Ellsworth and Mariamne H. Whatley, eds., The Ideology of Images in Educational Media: Hidden Curriculums in the Classroom (New York: Teachers College Press, 1990).

Judith Fetterley, “Reading about Reading: ‘A Jury of Her Peers,’ ‘The Murders in the Rue Morgue,’ and ‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’” in Gender and Reading: Essays on Readers, Texts, and Contexts, ed. Elizabeth A. Flynn and Patrocinio P. Schweickart (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), 147-64.

Frances FitzGerald, America Revised: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century (New York: Vintage, 1980)

Eric Foner, “Ken Burns and the Romance of Reunion,” in Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World (New York: Hill and Wang/Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002), 189-204.

Michele Foster, Black Teachers on Teaching (New York: New Press, 1997).

Richard A. Friend, “Choices, Not Closets: Heterosexism and Homophobia in Schools,” in Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States Schools, ed. Lois Weis and Michelle Fine (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993), 209-35.

Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982).

Carol Gilligan, “Teaching Shakespeare’s Sister: Notes from the Underground of Female Adolescence,” in Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School, ed. Carol Gilligan, Nona P. Lyons, and Trudy J. Hanmer (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 6-29.

Perry Gilmore, David M. Smith, and Apacuar Larry Kairaiuak, “Resisting Diversity: An Alaskan Case of Institutional Struggle,” in Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong (New York: Routledge, 1997), 90-99.

Andrew Gitlin, Edward Buendía, Kristin Crosland, and Fodé Doumbia, “The Production of Margin and Center: Welcoming-Unwelcoming of Immigrant Students,” American Educational Research Journal 40, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 91-122.

Susan Glaspell, “A Jury of Her Peers,” in Images of Women in Literature, ed. Mary Anne Fergusun (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973), 370-85.

John M. Glen, Highlander: No Ordinary School, 1932-1962 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988).

Norma González, Luis C. Moll, Martha Floyd Tenery, Anna Rivera, Patricia Rendon, Raquel Gonzales, and Cathy Amanti, “Funds of Knowledge for Teaching in Latino Households,” Urban Education 29, no. 4 (January 1995): 443-70.

Ian Grosvenor, “On Visualising Past Classrooms,” in Silences and Images: The Social History of the Classroom, ed. Ian Grosvenor, Martin Lawn and Kate Rousmaniere (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), 83-104.

Thomas A. Guglielmo, “Rethinking Whiteness Historiography: The Case of Italians in Chicago, 1890-1945,” in White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism, ed. Ashley W. Doane and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (New York: Routledge, 2003), 49-61.

Barbara Houston, “Gender Freedom and the Subtleties of Sexist Education,” Educational Theory 35, no. 4 (Fall 1985): 359-69.

Jacqueline Jordan Irvine and James W. Fraser, “‘Warm Demanders’: Do National Certification Standards Leave Room for the Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of African-American Teachers?” Education Week (May 13, 1998): 56, 42.

Michael B. Katz, Michael J. Doucet, and Mark J. Stern, “Early Industrial Capitalism: The Institutional Legacy,” in The Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), 349-91.

Evelyn Fox Keller, “A World of Difference,” in Reflections on Gender and Science (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 158-76.

Holly Keller, “Juvenile Antislavery Narrative and Notions of Childhood,” Children’s Literature 24, ed. Francelia Butler, R. H. W. Dillard, and Elizabeth Lennox Keyser (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 86-100.

Joyce E. King, “Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers,” The Journal of Negro Education 60, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 133-46.

James R. King, “Uncommon Caring: Male Primary Teachers as Constructed and Constrained,” in Caring in an Unjust World: Negotiating Borders and Barriers in Schools, ed. Deborah Eaker-Rich and Jane Van Galen (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 47-60.

Rita M. Kissen, “Forbidden to Care: Gay and Lesbian Teachers,” in Caring in an Unjust World: Negotiating Borders and Barriers in Schools, ed. Deborah Eaker-Rich and Jane Van Galen (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 61-84.

Herbert Kohl, “The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Revisited,” in Should We Burn Babar? Essays on Children’s Literature and the Power of Stories (New York: The New Press, 1995), 30-56.

Jonathon Kozol, Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (New York: Crown Publishers, 1991).

William Labov, “The Logic of Nonstandard English,” in Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972), 201-40.

Gloria Ladson-Billings, The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994).

Martin Lawn, “Designing Teaching: The Classroom as a Technology,” in Silences and Images: The Social History of the Classroom, ed. Ian Grosvenor, Martin Lawn and Kate Rousmaniere (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), 63-82.

Sandra M. Lawrence and Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Teachers in Transition: The Impact of Antiracist Professional Development on Classroom Practice,” Teachers College Record 99, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 162-78.

Stacey J. Lee, Unraveling the ‘Model Minority’ Stereotype: Listening to Asian American Youth (New York: Teachers College Press, 1996).

Timothy J. Lensmire, “Writing Workshop as Carnival: Reflections on an Alternative Writing Environment,” Harvard Educational Review 64, no. 4 (Winter 1994): 371-91.

James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, 1995). Also: James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (New York: The New Press, 1995).

Carmen Luke, Suzanne de Castell, and Allan Luke, “Beyond Criticism: The Authority of the School Text,” Curriculum Inquiry 13, no. 2 (1983): 111-27.

Frank Margonis, “From Student Resistance to Educative Engagement:  A Case Study in Building Powerful Student-Teacher Relationships,” in No Education without Relation, ed. Charles Bingham and Alexander M. Sidorkin (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004), 39-53.

Cris Mayo, “Relations Are Difficult,” in No Education without Relation, ed. Charles Bingham and Alexander M. Sidorkin (New York:  Peter Lang, 2004), 121-35.

T. L. McCarty, “School as Community: The Rough Rock Demonstration,” Harvard Educational Review 59, no. 4 (November 1989): 484-503.

Peggy McIntosh,“White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies,” in Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, ed. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992), 70-81.

Linda McNeil, “Defensive Teaching and Classroom Control,” in Ideology and Practice in Schooling, ed. Michael W. Apple and Lois Weis (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983), 114-42.

Carmen Montecinos, “Multicultural Teacher Education for a Culturally Diverse Teaching Force,” in Practicing What We Teach: Confronting Diversity in Teacher Education, ed. Renée J. Martin (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), 97-116.

Toni Morrison, “Recitatif,” in Confirmation: An Anthology of African American Women, ed. Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Amina Baraka (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1983), 243-61.

Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb, Jr., Radical Equations: Civil Rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).

Linda J. Nicholson, “Women and Schooling,” Educational Theory 30, no. 3 (Summer 1980): 225-33.

John U. Ogbu, “Societal Forces as a Context of Ghetto Children’s School Failure,” in The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention, ed. Lynne Feagans and Dale Clark Farran (New York: Academic Press, 1982), 117-38.

Timothy O’Hanlon, “Interscholastic Athletics, 1900-1940: Shaping Citizens for Unequal Roles in the Modern Industrial State,” Educational Theory 30, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 89-103.

Laurie Olsen, Made in America: Immigrant Students in Our Public Schools (New York: The New Press, 1997).

Eleanor Wilson Orr, Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance of Black Students in Mathematics and Science (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1987).

Carol Padden and Tom Humphries, Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988).

Vivian Gussin Paley, White Teacher (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

William F. Pinar, ed., Queer Theory in Education (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998).

Geoffrey K. Pullum, “The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax,” in The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1991), 159-71.

Mike Rose, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America’s Educational Underclass (New York: Penguin, 1989).

Rosa Hernández Sheets and Laureen Chew, “Absent from the Research, Present in Our Classrooms: Preparing Culturally Responsive Chinese American Teachers,” Journal of Teacher Education 53, no. 2 (March/April 2002): 127-41.

Beverly Slapin and Doris Seale, eds., Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992).

Harry Smaller, “Words about Classrooms: What Can One Letter Tell Us?,” in Silences and Images: The Social History of the Classroom, ed. Ian Grosvenor, Martin Lawn and Kate Rousmaniere (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), 105-20.

Peter N. Stearns, Peter Seixas, and Sam Wineburg, eds., Knowing, Teaching, and Learning History: National and International Perspectives (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

Audrey Thompson, “Harriet Tubman in Pictures: Cultural Consciousness and the Art of Picture Books,” The Lion and the Unicorn 25, no. 1 (January 2001): 81-114.

Melissa Kay Thompson, “A Sea of Good Intentions: Native Americans in Books for Children,” The Lion and the Unicorn 25, no. 3 (September 2001): 353-74.

Judith Treesberg, “The Death of a ‘Strong Deaf’,” The Nation 252, no. 5 (February 11, 1991): 154-58.

Robert A. Trennert, “Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878-1920,” in Unequal Sisters: A Multicultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, ed. Ellen Carol DuBois and Vicki L. Ruiz (New York: Routledge, 1990), 224-37.

James W. Trent, Jr., Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

Sherry Turkle and Seymour Papert, “Epistemological Pluralism: Styles and Voices within the Computer Culture,” Signs 16, no. 1 (Autumn 1990): 128-57.

David Tyack, The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974).

David Tyack and Elisabeth Hansot, Learning Together: A History of Coeducation in American Public Schools (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).

Angela Valenzuela, Subtractive Schooling: U.S.-Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999).

Suzanne Wade, Audrey Thompson, and William Watkins, “The Role of Belief Systems in Authors’ and Readers’ Constructions of Texts,” in Beliefs about Text and Instruction with Text, ed. Ruth Garner and Patricia A. Alexander (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994), 265-93.

Eliot Wigginton, Sometimes a Shining Moment: The Foxfire Experience: Twenty Years Teaching in a High School Classroom (Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1985/1986).

Samuel S. Wineburg, “On the Reading of Historical Texts: Notes on the Breach between School and Academy,” American Educational Research Journal 28, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 495-519.

Walt Werner, “Reading Authorship into Texts,” Theory and Research in Social Education 28, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 193-219.

Myra Zarnowski, History Makers: A Questioning Approach to Reading and Writing Biographies (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003).

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